网站地图 加入收藏 中文 English
 
首页 中心概况 组织机构 研究队伍 科学研究 人才培养 交流合作 支撑服务 人才招聘 下载专区 联系我们
当前位置:首页 - 科学研究 - 学术论文
学术论文
Hao Z, Hong S, Chen X*, Chen RP*, Introducing Bioorthogonal Functionalities into Proteins in Living Cells ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH, in press. 2011.
发布时间:2011-11-23作者:陈兴关键字:

Abstract
Proteins are the workhorses of the cell, playing crucial roles in virtually every biological process. The revolutionary ability to visualize and monitor proteins in living systems, which is largely the result of the development of green fluorescence protein (GFP) and its derivatives, has dramatically expanded our understanding of protein dynamics and function. Still, GFPs are ill suited in many circumstances; one major drawback is their relatively large size, which can significantly perturb the functions of the native proteins to which they are fused. To bridge this gap, scientists working at the chemistry-biology interface have developed methods to install bioorthogonal functional groups into proteins in living cells. The bioorthogonal group is, by definition, a non-native and nonperturbing chemical group. But more importantly, the installed bioorthogonal handle is able to react with a probe bearing a complementary functionality in a highly selective fashion and with the cell operating in its physiological state. Although extensive efforts have been directed toward the development of bioorthogonal chemical reactions, introducing chemical functionalities into proteins in living systems remains an ongoing challenge. In this Account, we survey recent progress in this area, focusing on a genetic code expansion approach. In nature, a cell uses posttranslational modifications to append the necessary functional groups into proteins that are beyond those contained in the canonical 20 amino acids. Taking lessons from nature, scientists have chosen or engineered certain enzymes to modify target proteins with chemical handles. Alternatively, one can use the cell's translational machinery to genetically encode bioorthogonal functionalities, typically in the form of unnatural amino acids (UAAs), into proteins; this can be done in a residue-specific or a site-specific manner. For studying protein dynamics and function in living cells, site-specific modification by means of genetic code expansion is usually favored. A variety of UAAs bearing bioorthogonal groups as well as other functionalities have been genetically encoded into proteins of interest. Although this approach is well established in bacteria, tagging proteins in mammalian cells is challenging. A facile pyrrolysine-based system, which might potentially become the "one-stop shop" for protein modification in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, has recently emerged. This technology can effectively introduce a series of bioorthogonal handles into proteins in mammalian cells for subsequent chemical conjugation with small-molecule probes. Moreover, the method may provide more precise protein labeling than GFP tagging. These advancements build the foundation for studying more complex cellular processes, such as the dynamics of important receptors on living mammalian cell surfaces.




版权所有 生命科学联合中心